Say What You Need to Say

Could it be that your organization is prevented from moving forward because of a lack of communication? If so, could it be that the lack of communication is born out of a desire to respect authority? Like many young Americans, I was taught that we are to respect those in authority. I still believe this. However, I now know “showing respect” doesn’t mean I idly keep silent and allow someone to blindly fail. For example, take the 1982 Air Florida plane crash outside Washington, DC.

The cold January crash provides a poignant illustration of how the errors of teamwork and communication can have devastating results. On takeoff, the 737 came down directly on top of the 14th Street Bridge, crushing four cars and killing 5 people. Of the 79 people on board, only four passengers and one Flight Attendant were pulled alive from the frigid waters of the Potomac River. These are the horrid facts, but why did this accident happen?

There are very few tragedies that grab our attention like plane crashes. Thankfully, commercial airline crashes are rare occurrences. Yet, when they happen they are unforgettable. “The kinds of errors that cause plane crashes are invariably errors of teamwork and communication,” writes Malcolm Gladwell in Outliers. He continues, “One pilot knows something important and somehow doesn’t tell the other pilot.”This is what happened with the Air Florida crash.

The primary error Gladwell points out with the Air Florida crash revolves around “mitigated speech,” which, “refers to any attempt to downplay or sugarcoat the meaning of what is being said.” Mitigated speech is communication that lacks confidence and authority. Mitigated speech is weak talk. Mitigated speech is talk that hints. Mitigated speech, regardless of the magnitude of the situation, is an attempt to communicate without a sense of urgency. Mitigated speech is deficient in clarity. Consider these examples of mitigated speech.

A mother may say to her toddler, “I would like for you to get out of the car.” This is mitigated speech because it is only a hint to the child to get out of the car. The child could understand the statement to be nothing more than a suggestion. Unmitigated speech would be, “Lydia, get out of the car right now!” In the latter statement, there is no doubt what the mother is communicating to Lydia.

A basketball coach may send in a player with 35 seconds to go in the game. He could say, “Jay, if Reynolds gets the ball it might be a good idea to foul him.” That would be mitigated speech. Jay, could reason that he doesn’t want to get charged with a foul and so let Reynolds move up the court unabated. The coach would have a far greater chance of getting his desired results if he was clear in his directive: “Jay, as soon as Reynolds touches that ball foul him and send him to the foul line.”

In the Air Florida crash the First Officer knew that the plane had a dangerous amount of ice on the wings. Four times, the First Officer spoke to the Captain about the danger. Yet, all four times, he used mitigated speech. Listen to the four statements:

“‘Look how the ice is just hanging on his, ah, back there, see that?”

“See all those icicles on the back there and everything?”

“Boy, this is a, this is a losing battle here on trying to de-ice those things, it [gives] you a false feeling of security, that’s all it does.”

Finally, after being cleared for takeoff, the First Officer gives his fourth statement: “Let’s check those [wing] tops again, since we’ve been sitting here a while.”

Sadly, the last words the First Officer says before the plane plummets into the river is “Larry, we’re going down, Larry.”

In researching this accident, and other airline tragedies, Gladwell makes a startling assertion. “Crashes have been far more likely to happen when the captain is in the flying seat.” He continues, “Planes are safer when the least experienced pilot is flying.” Why would he make such a claim? “Because,” he writes, “it means the second pilot isn’t going to be afraid to speak up.” If the roles would have been reversed in the Air Florida cockpit, the Captain wouldn’t have hesitated to demand that the plane stay on the ground. Yet, because of the respect for the Captain’s authority and experience, the First Officer was reluctant to forcefully communicate his concerns. That reluctance cost 79 people their lives.

While they may not get the attention of a plane crash, the errors of teamwork and communication in our teams can have devastating effects on our success as organizations. In organizations, it is critical that co-workers, fellow board members and teammates exhibit mutual respect and trust. Yet, respect and trust cannot lull us into spineless silence or mitigated communication. Rather, the reverse is true. Mature respect and genuine trust opens the door to honest communication. Organizations improve by listening to the ideas and concerns of everyone on the team.

While the results of mitigated speech in one organization may not lead to the loss of lives, the losses can matter. An unwillingness to speak-up could be the difference between a vital employee staying or leaving to work for a competitor. A reluctance to share insight could lead to losing a key client. Sharing an idea via a hint, instead of a confident assertion, could lead to a missed opportunity for growth.

In our employee benefits firm the Account Managers–also known as Benefit Specialists—are the primary guardians of the relationship with our clients. They are charged with serving as the trusted advisor for the client, assisting them in making the best possible decisions with their benefits package. However, working in tandem with the Account Manager is a team of support staff serving as liaisons with insurance carriers, resolving the claim and billing issues of the client’s employees, and implementing technology solutions. This support team is encouraged to share their ideas on any way to improve processes and strengthen relationships. We know they have unique perspectives that only those in their position can see. Our success often depends on their willingness to boldly disclose their ideas and observations.

This type of open and bold communication can only take place in environments where trust and honest listening is valued. Our company President, Account Managers and COO encourage our team members to speak up. We welcome new ideas and innovation.

The Air Florida crash was a tragic event that led to critical changes in the training of pilots. Today, the First Officer is more likely to leap over mitigated speech and say something more like, “Larry, stop. We can’t fly with this much ice on the wings. Tell the ATC we can’t go.” The lessons have been learned in aviation; may they also be learned in your organization.


  1. Introduce the discussion by asking the question, “If you were to get on a commercial airplane today and were given the option of having the most experienced or the least experienced pilot flying the plane, which would you choose?
  2. Share the story of the Air Florida crash
  3. Team Leaders share commitment to provide an organizational atmosphere that welcomes innovation and constructive conflict.
  4. To help the team understand “mitigated speech” ask them to share examples—real or imaginary—of mitigated speech outside of the team, (home, among friends, government, sports, etc.).
  5. Ask team members to share examples, from the past, of when they should have exhibited more boldness and clarity in their communication on the team. Have them answer the questions, “Why didn’t you speak up?” “How should you have communicated your message?”
  6. Finally, ask, “For the good of the team and our success as an organization, what should you communicate now?”


Jack Bruce is the COO of BIS Benefits in Atlanta, GA. He is certified as a Professional in Human Resources (PHR).

You may follow Jack on Twitter at

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One response to this post.

  1. Posted by jackwbruce on January 30, 2010 at 10:05 am

    Here is a follow up comment: I used this exercise to encourage our team at BIS Benefits to “speak-up.” It was a serendipity—I was amazed at the response. The very day I engaged our team in this exercise; one member of our team came to me and shared her thoughts on how we should improve our client newsletter. It was a fantastic idea. Later that week, one of our Account Managers was on a call with our owner. In the middle of the owner’s dialogue, the AM shouted “There is ice on the wings!”—which was a direct reference to our exercise–indicating she felt a need to speak up and correct what was being said.

    “There is ice on the wings!” is now a familiar phrase in our office.

    We have now ordered 50 small airplanes for our staff to award to any fellow employee who they find boldly speaking up for the good of the firm.


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